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NEMAF is a social movement organisation registered as a non-governmental organisation in Nepal. NEMAF was conceived in the backdrop of a political discourse during Maoist rebellion (1996-2006) that sensitized systemic exclusion of ethnic minorities, indigenous nationalities and Dalits. Terai/ Madhes, the Southern belt of Nepal which is predominantly inhabited by Madhesi and Tharu ethnic groups, has historically suffered ‘internal colonialism’ of the hill-based ethnic dominance in political, economic and social domains. The Madhes resistance that coincided with the Maoist uprising, erupted in 2007, following the peace agreement between the Maoists and the government of Nepal in November 2006 and still continues in different forms such as, Madhes-based political parties, community mobilisation and self-organising resistance against structural inequalities, lack of service delivery and poor life conditions of Madhesis.